Regulations and rules


The UFC was a driving force behind creating a set of regulations to standardize the sport worldwide. By 2009, regulatory agencies in the United States and numerous fighting promotions worldwide had approved the Unified Rules of Mixed Martial Arts. MMA fighters participate in a ring or a fenced area, wearing padded fingerless gloves but no shoes or headgear, and fighting in a call or a gated area. They may strike, toss, kick, or grapple with an opponent, and they can attack from either a standing or a prone position. Headbutting, gouging (shoving a finger or thumb into an opponent’s eye), biting, hair pulling, and any crotch attack are all outlawed. Certain assaults on a grounded opponent, such as kicking or kneeing the head, are also banned, as are downward elbow strikes, neck blows and strikes to the spine or back of the head. If a fighter breaks a rule, the referee may issue a warning, deduct points, or dismiss the offending participant (especially if a flagrant infraction is suspected).

The sport’s organization

The UFC, situated in Las Vegas, Nevada, is MMA’s top promoter on a professional level. It hosts dozens of live events each year, and its pay-per-view cable television broadcasts have reached audiences in more than 130 countries. The company, which was formed in 1993, was bought by Zuffa Inc. for $2 million in January 2001 and immediately flourished. Dana White, the president of the Ultimate Fighting Championship, quickly rose to prominence as the sport’s public face. In 2016, it was revealed that the UFC would be sold for $4 billion to the entertainment agency WME-IMG.


Unarmed martial-arts discipline involves kicking, hitting, and defensive blocking using arms and legs (Japanese: “empty hand”). The emphasis is on concentrating as much of the body’s force at the spot and time of impact as possible. The hands (especially the knuckles and the outside edge), the ball of the foot, heel, forearm, knee, and elbow are all striking surfaces. Practice knocks on padded covers or wood toughen them all. An adept can break pine boards up to several inches thick with their bare hands or foot. Timing, strategy, and spirit, on the other hand, are all seen as equally crucial as physical toughness.